LANGUAGE OF IRAN
- Official language Persian
- There are nearly 2000 words that have passed into our language from Persian. For example: Pear, almond, maybe, desire, liver, debt, memorization, wail…
WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF IRAN?
- Besides being the capital and largest city of the country, Tehran is also the economic center.
- Click to read the interesting dynamics between reformists and conservatives in Tehran.
- You can read Tehran’s day lamb and night wolf in our Tehran Nightlife article.
- Other important cities: Tabriz, Isfahan, Mashhad and Yazd.
RELIGION IN IRAN
- As you can imagine, 90% of the country is Shiite Muslims, 8% is Sunni Muslims, and the remaining 2% is people belonging to other religions.
- The official sect of the country is Shi’ism.
- It is governed by sharia.
- Zoroastrianism is still regarded and respected as the original religion of Iran. It still has 25,000 believers in the country. After India and America, the largest Zoroastrian population in the world is in Iran. Already, a significant part of the population in America consists of those who immigrated from Iran after the Islamic Dervimi.
- Iran uses the Arabic alphabet and sentences are read from right to left.
- Iran uses the Iranian Rial (IRR) as its currency. 1 Turkish Lira is worth 10462.78 Iranian Rials. (September 2016)
IRAN POPULATION (July 2016)
- Country Population: 82,801 million
- According to the researches, 61% of the population are Persians, 16% are Azeri Turks, 10% are Kurds, 6% are Lurs, 2% are Baluchis, 2% are Arabs, and the remaining 2% are Kashkay Turks. other Turkmen groups.
HOW IS IRAN GOVERNED?
- Political system of the Islamic Republic 1979 to the Iranian Constitution relies on.
- Iranian religious leader he is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the sole authority to wage war and make peace.
- council of advisers He elects or dismisses the supreme leader of Iran, and advises him on his duties.
- President of Iran He is the person with the highest authority after the religious leader. It is elected every four years and a person can preside for a maximum of two terms.
- Iranian Parliament It is a unicameral body and carries out legislative activities.
- With an area of 1,648,195 km², Iran is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world.
- Iranian; Turkey has land borders with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.
IRAN’S GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
- Although most of Iran is desert, the mountainous region bordering the Caspian Sea is a green place like the Black Sea. Especially in the northern part of the country, the air temperature from December to February is almost below freezing.
- Iran is one of the most mountainous countries in the world.
- When to go to Iran? The most ideal air temperatures of the year are between March and May, so these are the months that receive the most tourists in Iran.
- Iran’s economy mostly consists of agriculture, tourism, natural gas-oil exports.
- If you think that foreigners do not go because of Iran’s image, you are wrong. Even after its relations with the west improved in 2016, the lack of infrastructure broke out. It is very difficult to find a place in hotels at certain times of the year. There is a lot of hotel construction at the moment.
CULTURE IN IRAN
- Iranians are not Arabs. Like the Turks, they were influenced by their geography, but they have different roots and they have a unique culture.
- Unlike Middle Eastern people, 90% of Iranians are of Caucasian origin. This has been demonstrated by genetic studies.
- Iran has a very cosmopolitan society structure. Only 61% of the 79 million are Persian (Iranian). The largest minority is Azeris, the second is Kurds. Although there are only 9000 people, there is even a small Jewish community.
- Iranian cuisine is very close to Turkish cuisine. Kebabs served with buttered rice, mint buttermilk, and common tea culture are quite similar.
- Iran has a very rich and viscous culinary culture. That’s why you don’t come across very light meals in Iranian cuisine. The essentials of the most special and famous Iranian dishes are usually all kinds of spices; legumes such as rice, bulgur and meat. For example, cardamom and saffron are the most commonly used spices and have passed from Indian cuisine.
- What you need to know about clothing in Iran: “How should women tourists dress in Iran?” You can find it in our article.
- Also, click here to find out what Iranian rules you need to know before going to Iran.
HISTORY OF IRAN
Early Period (3200 BC – 625 BC)
- Thanks to the prehistoric remains found on the Iranian Plateau; There is information that traces of settlements date back even before Mesopotamian civilizations.
- Ancient Iranian communities, on the other hand, BC. They came to the Iranian Plateau in waves of migration in the third and second millennium BC.
- B.C. In 1000 BC, there were communities such as Medes, Persians, Bactrians, Parthians, Cimmerians, Alans, Sarmatians, and Scythians in this period.
- Zoroastrianism, which is considered the ancestor of monotheistic religions, was born in this period. It is known that the religion of Zoroastrianism, which is one of the most rooted religions in Iranian history, emerged in this period, as well as the Avesta, the book containing the holy hymns and rules. Zoroastrianism, one of the first monotheistic religions in history, was the official religion of the Achaemenid Empire until the end of the 6th century and then became the official religion of the Iranian Empires.
Pre-Islamic (625 BC – 651 BC)
- In this period before Islam; Medes, Achaemenid (1st Persian Empire) and Seleucid Empires, Parthians and Sassanids (2nd Persian Empire) contributed to the historical development of Iranian history. Innovations and developments have been recorded in trade, administration and religion.
- With the Islamic Conquest of Iran, the Sassanids ended and Iran began to Islamize.
Middle Ages (652 – 1501)
- the Islamization of Iran to a large extent, if not in full, after its conquest by the Islamic State; It caused many innovations and changes in social, cultural, political and of course religious fields.
- Between these dates, Iran was conquered and ruled by the Umayyads, Abbasids, Tahirs and Samanids, Ghaznavids, Seljuks, Harzemshahs, Mongol and Timur Empires.
Early Modern Period (1501 – 1921)
- The first Shiite Islamic State, the Safavid Dynasty, was established in Iran in 1501. Afghan rebels defeated the Safavids, which led to the development of the Isfahani Style in Architecture, in 1722 and the Afshar Dynasty was established.
- After the Afshar Dynasty, the Zend and Qajar Dynasties were established. The discovery of oil in 1908 during the Qajar Dynasty was a turning point, which caused other states to make calculations about Iran, and Iran’s socio-economic structure completely changed.
- The Qajar dynasty was the last Turkish dynasty in the history of Iran.
- Click to see the Naivaran Palace, which was built by Fatih Ali of the Kaçar Dynasty. Another Qajar Palace is the Golestan Palace, one of the most beautiful buildings in Iran.
THE LAST PERSON AND THE ISLAMIC REVOLUTION
Here we went with short titles. In order to best understand
Reza Shah Period:
Britain’s political and military sanctions and interventions in Iran began during the Safavid era. Later, Iranian Reza Shah Pahlavi was introduced to England by a British agent.
Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was brought to the head of the country by England in 1921 with the British coup against Iran; He became the prime minister in 1923 and the Shah of Iran in 1925.
Reza Pahlavi, who was able to suppress many socialist and nationalist movements, deactivated the Qajar Dynasty and established the Pahlavi Dynasty in 1925.
It abolished the semi-autonomy of regions such as Azerbaijan, Arabia and Luristan, moved all powers to Tehran, and strictly prohibited languages other than Persian.
Iran under the rule of Reza Shah Pahlavi, which contributed to industrialization, the construction of railway transport and the development of higher education; When it got closer to Germany during World War II, it was occupied by the USSR and the United Kingdom, for which it had been conducting a balance policy for a long time.
Reza Shah Pahlavi, who refused to deport the German officials at the request of the allied forces after the occupation, had to leave the country in order for his son to continue in power, provided that he was under the control of the occupation forces.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Period:
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who made more democratic innovations than his father, Shah Reza; He carried out activities such as removing censorship of the press and allowing political and social organizations.
Although the United Kingdom, the USSR and the USA decided to invade and rebuild Iran after the Tehran Conference in 1943; The USSR did not comply with this and established two autonomous states, the Azerbaijani Azerbaijan National Government and the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad. In the same year, the USSR emptied these lands when they made a privileged agreement to operate Iran’s northern oil fields.
The National Front, which became more and more active, had in 1951, at the request of the majority of the people, passed the resolution on the nationalization of oil in the parliament. When Prime Minister Razmara, who opposed the decision, was killed; The Shah had to appoint the leader of the National Front, Mohammad Mossadegh, as its head.
When the decision to nationalize oil and Mossadegh’s general independence policy did not please the United Kingdom and the United States, the CIA supported a group from the army and a coup was staged and the Shah was forced to leave the country. Then, when the British made a deal with the USA and carried out the Ajax Operation to overthrow Mossadeq, Mossadegh was arrested in 1953, and the Shah returned to the country.
The reform package put forward by the Shah to ensure the development of Iran after the end of Mossadegh’s rule. At that time, cleric Khomeini was imprisoned for 18 months because he was a political leader and was held responsible for public events.
Iranian Islamic Revolution
It is also called the Iranian Revolution. As a result of large anti-Shah demonstrations, strikes, and economic events that started in January 1978, the Shah left the country in February 1979 and Khomeini returned to Iran.
On April 1, 1979, after a referendum, Iran officially became the Islamic Republic, and then in December 1979, the country ratified the theocratic constitution and the religious leadership of Khomeini. Beni Sadr is made president.
THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR:
One of the most important events in the history of Iran; Relations with the USA deteriorated during the revolution in Iran in 1979, when a group of students took the staff hostage on the grounds that the US embassy was a spy nest. The students demanded that the Shah be given away in exchange for hostages, but the plan failed when the Shah died in 1980.
Iraqi Leader Saddam Hussein planned to attack Iran from Tehran to take Khuzestan, which is valuable for its Arab population and rich oil fields, and to realize his desire to open up to the Persian Gulf. Although Iraq was later forced to withdraw due to the UN peace treaty, hundreds of thousands of people died on both sides. The most striking fact about this war is the chemical weapons that Iraq used in the war during these eight years.
|2000 BC||Migrations from Central Asia to Iran|
|B.C. 530-330||Cyrus the Great establishes the Achaemenid Dynasty|
|B.C. 330||Alexander the Great’s conquest of Persia|
|B.C. 323||Death of Alexander the Great and one of his generals founding the Seleucid Empire|
|B.C. 250||Arsacid invaders establish the Parthian Empire|
|AD 224||Sassanid establishment of Persian empire|
|MS 637||Conquest of the Arabs, Islam becoming the official religion|
|1051-1220||domination of the Seljuks|
|1258||The establishment of the Ilkhanid State by the Mongol invaders|
|1335||the end of Mongol rule; establishment of small dynasties|
|1501-1722||domination of the Safavids|
|1796-1925||Qajar dynasty period|
|1926||Reza Shah’s establishment of the Pahlavi Dynasty|
|1935||The region took the name Iran|
|1941||invasion of British and Soviet Russian forces; Reza Shah handing over the throne to his son|
|1979||Islamic Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini’s coming to power|
|1980||Establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran|
|1989||Death of Ayatollah Khomeini|
|1997||Election of Mohammed Khatami as leader|
|2002||US President George W. Bush’s characterization of Iran as an “axis of evil”|
|2005||Mahmoud Ahmadinejad becoming president|